Scroll Top
Danishgah Blvd. , Pardisan , Qom , Iran

Title :Comparison of teleology in philosophical ethics and mystical ethics based on the views of Bu Ali and Ibn Arabi

Student :  MohammadRasul Ruzbeh

supervisor : Dr. Ali Shirvani

Advisor : Dr. MohammadMehdi GorjiyanArabi / Dr. YarAli kordFiruzjayi

Grade : PHD

Years : 2015


The present study examines the moral purpose of the two approaches of philosophical ethics and mystical ethics from the perspective of two great thinkers of philosophy and mysticism, namely Ibn Sina and Ibn Arabi.

Muslim thinkers consider morality to include virtues and consider virtuous living and performing moral actions as a prelude to achieving goodness and the ultimate goal.

The end of every object is what is considered its perfection, and now it lacks it, and by moving towards that end and reaching its perfection, its power and talents become actual. 

The ultimate type that each moral system has introduced as its ultimate perfection depends on that system’s view of the universe, origin and resurrection (ontological foundations) and man’s relationship with the universe, the type of attitude towards human truth and levels and powers and talents and the perfections that can be achieved for such a human being (anthropological foundations) and his view of human knowledge and perceptual powers (epistemological foundations)   .

The difference in principles in both philosophical and mystical approaches has caused the end that they have considered for ethics to be different.    

According to Ibn Sina, the goal of philosophical ethics is to reach the perfection of the practical intellect and the possession of moderation.

And the end of mystical morality is the creation of divine morality, which is one of the characteristics of the status of annihilation in the sight of God and is achieved in the human heart.

In philosophical and mystical views, morality is in the middle of behavior and the perfectionist movement towards final perfection. Therefore, moral virtues and perfections are the preludes to reaching the final goal and perfection in any approach.

Disagreement about the end of morality in the two moral systems has led to differences in the examples of moral virtues and perfections and their meaning.

In each of the two moral systems, according to the moral purpose considered in that system, the examples of perfections and virtues mentioned in the other moral system do not exist. In addition, the virtues that are common in both ethical systems are different semantically.

In both views, happiness is the result of human perfection and ultimate perfection is considered a tool to achieve happiness and goodness.

But due to the difference between the two approaches to perfection and end, happiness in each view has found a different meaning and example from the other.

Consequently, according to Ibn Sina, happiness is related to reason and rational activity. Still, according to Ibn Arabi, it is related to attainment because it is related to the truth of man and heart.

Happiness has different levels and degrees in each view.

Keywords: philosophical ethics, mystical ethics, Ibn Sina, Ibn Arabi, the goal of ethics, human perfection, happiness, moderation, annihilation